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祝你好梦 4

技术 2016-02-01 22:03:37 评论

TOPIC:健康;教育;成功;儿童;

场景:

健康:睡眠;身体健康&心理健康;

生活方式:早睡早起身体好?

科技/社会进步& 睡眠:电子产品& 睡眠剥夺;

【口语 + 写作】

【大作文+小作文】

【阅读-自然科学】

Among sleep researchers it is widely believed that people sleep differently today than they did 150 years ago. Many argue that the invention of the electric light bulb in the late 1800s — and all the artificially?lit environments that followed — dramatically changed our sleep patterns. Exposure to artificial light at night, whether from light bulbs or computer screens, throws off the body’s biological clock, delaying and reducing sleep, experts say.

睡眠研究者普遍认为,人们如今的睡眠模式与150年前截然不同。许多人主张,19世纪末电灯泡的发明,以及其后所有的人工照明环境都大大改变了我们的睡眠模式。专家称,无论是灯泡还是电脑屏幕,都会让人在夜间暴露在人造光下,扰乱人体的生物钟,推迟并缩短睡眠。

【经典句式】

argue提出;认为

electric light bulb电灯泡

artificially人工地

dramatically大大地;剧烈地

sleep pattern睡眠模式

exposure to sth 暴露在……之中

artificial light 人造光

light bulb灯泡

computer screen电脑屏幕

biological clock生物钟

【犀利观点】睡眠质量&科技改变生活方式:全段

?

Some historians have also argued that it is not natural for people to sleep straight through the night. They say that before the introduction of artificial light it was normal for people to sleep in two intervals separated by an hour of wakefulness, a phenomenon known as segmented sleep, or “first” and “second” sleep.

还有一些历史学家认为,彻夜连续睡眠并不符合人体的自然规律。他们说,在发明人造光之前,人们的睡眠常分为两段,中间间隔一小时的清醒时间,这种现象称为分段式睡眠,或“第一段”和“第二段”睡眠。

【经典句式】

argue提出;认为

introduction引入

artificial light 人造光

interval间断

wakefulness醒着;清醒

phenomenon现象

segment分割

?

But Dr. Siegel said he always questioned those assertions because there were no rigorous?studies of sleep behaviors back then. He and his colleaguesdecided that one way to get some insight was to study cultures relatively unaffected by artificial light.

但西格尔博士说,他对这些断言一直抱有怀疑态度,因为当时并不曾对睡眠行为进行过严谨的研究。他和同事们认定,弄清楚这些问题,途径之一是研究那些相对未受到人造光影响的文明。

【经典句式】

question质疑

assertion断言

rigorous严谨的

back then当时;以前

colleague同事

insight洞见

artificial light人造光

?

Among those they chose to follow were the Hadza people, who spend their days hunting and foraging in northern Tanzania, much as their ancestors have for tens of thousands of years; the San of Namibia, who have lived as hunter-gatherers in the Kalahari for at least 20,000 years; and the Tsimané, a seminomadic group that lives in the Andean foothills of Bolivia, near the farthest reaches of the human migration out of Africa.

他们选择了以下族群作为随访对象:居住在坦桑尼亚北部的哈扎人,他们像其千万年前的先祖一样,终日狩猎采食;生活在纳米比亚的桑族人,他们在喀拉哈里沙漠(Kalahari)狩猎-采集已有至少2万年的历史;以及在玻利维亚的安第斯山麓过着半游牧生活的齐玛内人,他们差不多是人类走出非洲后迁移得最远的一支。

【经典句式】

forage觅食

ancestor祖先

seminomadic半游牧的

reach

migration迁移

?

Members of the various tribes were fitted with small wristwatch-like devices that tracked their sleep patterns and their exposure to light across the seasons.

研究人员给这几个部落的成员配备了类似腕表的小装置,用以跟踪他们的睡眠模式以及他们在各个季节的光暴露情况。

【经典句式】

various多种多样的

tribe部落

be fitted with 装备……

wristwatch腕表

device装置

track跟踪

sleep pattern睡眠模式

exposure to sth 暴露在……之中

?

The researchers found that in addition to sleeping roughly similar amounts each night, the three groups rarely?took naps during the day and did not sleep in two separate?intervals at night.

研究人员发现,除了每晚睡眠时间大致相同之外,三组研究对象在白天都基本不会小睡,夜晚的睡眠也并未分成两段。

【经典句式】

in addition to,除了……之外

roughly大致地

rarely很少地

take a nap小睡;打盹

separate分开的

interval间隔

?

Dr. Siegel said it was remarkable how closely their sleep patterns overlapped despite the distances between them.

西格尔博士说,值得注意的是,尽管他们之间相隔十万八千里,睡眠模式却基本相同。

【经典句式】

remarkable显着的

sleeppattern睡眠模式

overlap重合

despite尽管

?

The Hadza and the San live in the area where we know humans evolved, and then theTsimané live in some sense at the end of the human migration,” he said. “The fact that we see very similar sleep times gives me great confidence that this is how all of our ancestors slept.”

“哈扎人和桑族人居住在众所周知的人类起源之地,而齐玛内人则生活在人类迁徙足迹所及的最远处,”他说。“我们发现他们的睡眠时间非常相似,该事实令我自信地认为:这就是我们所有祖先的睡眠模式。”

【经典句式】

evolve进化

migration迁徙

ancestor祖先

?

Their sleep did not seem to be problematic. Chronic insomnia, which affects 20 percent to 30 percent of Americans, occurred in just 2 percent of the hunter-gatherers. The San and the Tsimané did not even have a word for itin their languages.

他们似乎并不存在睡眠问题。困扰20%30%的美国人的慢性失眠,在狩猎-采集族群中的发生率仅有2%。桑族人和齐玛内人的语言中甚至都没有“失眠”这个词。

【经典句式】

problematic有问题的

chronic长期的;慢性的

insomnia失眠

?

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